Albert Einstein

It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer.

                                                                         -Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a German scientist born on March 14, 1879. He graduated from high school in 1896. He was a person who enjoyed music thus he plays the violin and piano. He was working with a patent clerk in Switzerland 1905, and that was the time when Einstein bloomed. in 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Among all the scientists out there, Einstein may be the most famous of them all. Many may be familiar with the equation E=MC^2, but many do not know what it means. In 1905, the information he discovered was published as the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein mainly contributed to the atomic theory by criticizing. The equation explains that all matters are equivalent to energy. They just take place in different forms.

It took Einstein around 10 years to figure out the equation. Everyone during the time thought that like many other things, the speed of light was variable. Einstein was willing to take a guess and assume that the speed of light was in fact constant.

What Einstein was trying to prove was that matter and energy are identical. They can transform into matter or into energy. Lavoisier stated in the Conservation of Matter that all matters cannot be destroyed, but can only change forms. This applied to the principles of energy as well. Energy may only change forms.

Max Planck

Anybody who has been seriously engaged is scientific work of any kind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of science are written the words: ‘Ye must have faith.’ “

                                                                         -Max Planck

Max Planck is a German scientist born on April 23, 1858. He died in October 4, 1947. Planck was a very musical person. He played a variety of musical instruments and even composed songs and did opera. In 1874, he studied at the University of Munich. He won the Noble Prize in Physics in 1918.

Planck was the father of the Quantum Theory. He discovered that energy is transmitted through packets called Quanta. He conducted a formula for the Quantum Theory; E=nhf or E=hv, where h=proportional constant: 6.626x10^34 J.

The corresponding pictures show that as the temperature changes, the color also changes. The wires turn from red to somewhat white as the temperature gets hotter. This concludes Planck’s research showing that he is able to use quanta to prove that substances that increase in temperature will also change color or in other words; glow.

Henri Becquerel

"Decisiveness is often the art of timely cruelty."

                                                                    -Henri Becquerel

He was born in Paris on December 15, 1852, and died on 25th August 1908. He was a French Physicist and a Nobel laureate, Also the discoverer of radioactivity, which earns him and his students a Nobel Prize in 1903. In 1892, he became the third in his family to occupy the physics chair at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. In 1894, he became chief engineer in the Department of Bridges and Highways. he was also elected as Permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences.

His contribution toward atomic theory was the discovery of radioactivity element. he intend to find the same effect of x-ray from uranium salt, that was previously discover.  In hope of finding the emitted penetrating x-rays radiation from the uranium salt.

To prove this he used wrapping of the lumière photographic with a bromide emulsion in two sheets of very thick black paper, the plate should not be exposed to sunlight for a day, then place a slab of phosphorescent plate on the outside, exposed it to sunlight for several hours

  • By placing the metal screen pierced with cut out design, the object should appear in negative.
  • This proves that the substance in question emits rays that pass through opaque paper.
  • Other experiment involving non-phosphorescent uranium salts, conclude that the radiation emit came from uranium itself without any need of the external energy source.

In addition of the research in radioactivity, have discover other radioactive element with the help of Marie and Pierre Curie

Joseph Louis Proust

He was born in Angers, France on September 26th 1754, and died on July 5th 1826 in Angers. He was a French chemist. Joseph studied chemistry in his father’s shop and later came to Paris where he gained the appointment of apothecary in chief to the Salpetriere]. He also taught chemistry with Pilatre de Rozier, a famous aeronaut. He also interest in studying the sugar present in fruit and vegetables. He demonstrated that how the sugar in grape is similar to that of a honey, later became known as glucose.

His contribution was   Law of definite proportions that stated that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. It is the basis of stoichiometry.

To prove this theory, he observe of the pass research and experiment between 1798 and 1804.

He studied copper carbonate, the two tin oxides, and the two iron sulfides to prove this law. He did this by making artificial copper carbonate and comparing it to natural copper carbonate. With this he showed that each had the same proportion of weights between the three elements.

Between the two types of compound, he showed that no intermediate indeterminate compound exist between them.

James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick was born on October 20, 1891 in Cheshire, England. He passed away on July 24, 1974. He was Noble Prize winner. He studied at the University of Manchester and Cambridge. He worked under other genius minds like Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford.

Sir James Chadwick was the person who discovered the mere existence of neutrons. He used alpha particles to determine a neutral atomic particle, later known as the neutron. The protons in an element simply does not make up for it’s atomic mass, so therefore there must be some other atomic particle in the element. It couldn’t have been the electrons because they did not weigh enough to matter. Ernest Rutherford did in fact discover some sort of neutral particle in atoms, but wasn’t able to figure out what it was. Chadwick proved Rutherford’s theory correct.

Chadwick used that equation to prove that neutrons did exist.